Churning Still Water - Briefing Paper on Urban Waterbodies
Urban waterbodies play an important role in flood control, groundwater recharge and water supply to help cities adapt to climate change effects.
Today these waterbodies are encroached, full of sewage, garbage or just filled up and built over. “Churning still water”, CSE's briefing paper on the state of urban waterbodies, conservation and management in India, has tried to bring out the threats to the urban waterbodies in India. The paper has also reviewed the existing policies, acts and laws to tackle the loss of these bodies of water.
‘Septage’ is both solid and liquid waste that accumulates in onsite sanitation systems (OSS) e.g. septic tanks. This has three main components – scum, effluent and sludge. It has an offensive odour, appearance and contains significant levels of grease, grit, hair, debris and pathogenic micro organisms. The construction and management of OSS are left largely to ineffective local practices and there is lack of holistic septage management practices.